The majority of the German-speaking population that had not fled was expelled, an activity that was euphemized as "transfers [to] be effected in an orderly and humane manner" in accordance with the decision of the victorious Allied powers at their 1945 meeting at Potsdam. It is currently split into a larger Polish and the smaller Czech Silesian part, which is located within the Czech regions of Moravia-Silesia and Olomouc. After the First World War the region was divided between Poland (East Upper Silesia) and Germany (West Upper Silesia). 106, Institute of Geography of the, This page was last edited on 29 October 2020, at 08:58. [citation needed]. A small part south of the Opava River remained within the Habsburg-ruled Bohemian Crown as the "Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia", colloquially called Austrian Silesia. [3], or up to 1,560,000 together with bilinguals[3], United States Immigration Commission in 1911 classified Polish-speaking Silesians as Poles.[8]. According to the 9th century Bavarian Geographer, the West Slavic Opolanie tribe had settled on the upper Oder River since the days of the Migration Period, centered on the gord of Opole. The area formally became part of the Republic of Poland by virtue of the German-Polish border treaty of November 14, 1990. For centuries, Polish, Czech and German cuisine was mixed here. show that large demographic changes took place between 1819 and 1910, with the region's total population quadrupling, the percent of German-speakers increasing significantly, and that of Polish-speakers declining considerably. Deutsch-polnisches Abkommen über Ostschlesien (Genfer Abkommen)", "Gemeindeverzeichnis Deutschland: Schlesien", "Rocznik statystyki Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 1920/21", "Schlesien: Geschichte im 20. Oberschlesische Technikdenkmäler. Unlike in Lower Silesia, the Germanization process was halted; still a majority of the population spoke Polish and Silesian as their native language, often together with German (Silesian German) as a second language. The plan was decided by an ambassadors conference in Paris on 20 October 1921. Agriculture plays a secondary role, developed mainly in Opole Silesia. Silesian women's clothes vary depending on the region and even the individual towns and villages they come from. Since the 9th century, Upper Silesia has been part of (chronologically) Greater Moravia, the Duchy of Bohemia, the Piast Kingdom of Poland, again of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown and the Holy Roman Empire, as well as of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1526. In the second half of the twentieth century, dishes from the Polish borderland cuisine (potato pancakes, dumplings with cheese, red borscht, bigos) gained popularity in Upper Silesia. Also the total land area in which Polish language was spoken, as well as the land area in which it was spoken by the majority, declined between 1790 and 1890. In 2018 they failed to get any mandates with 3.10%. Drei deutsche Grenzprovokationen aus dem Jahre 1939. Typical Upper Silesian dishes are consumed here, as well as dishes that are also present in Lesser Poland and Greater Poland at the same time. A good many German-speaking Upper Silesians were relocated in Bavaria. Wo liegt Oberschlesien? In the north, Upper Silesia borders on Greater Poland, and in the west on the Lower Silesian lands (the adjacent region around Wrocław also referred to as Middle Silesia). After the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, the Catholic Emperors of the Habsburg dynasty forcibly re-introduced Catholicism, led by the Jesuits. : b Five km west: 74 in the Cosel district was a subcamp of Auschwitz III operated from April 1, 1944 to January 26, 1945. Oberschlesien ist der südöstliche Teil der historischen Region Schlesien, der heute größtenteils in Polen liegt. Divided Cieszyn Silesia as well as former Austrian Silesia are historical parts of Upper Silesia. Radio Mittendrin is a German-Polish Internet radio station of the German minority. In contrast to the situation in Lower Silesia, where almost the totality of the pre-war population that was expelled was exclusively German-speaking, the pre-war population of Upper Silesia was in considerable number Roman Catholic mixed bilingual that spoke both German and Polish dialects, and their Polish linguistic skills were considered solid enough for them to be kept in the area.